i. reading (30%)
read the following passages and choose the best answer from the 4 choices below each question.
the common belief of some linguists that each language is a perfect vehicle for the thoughts of the nation speaking it is in some ways the exact counterpart of the conviction of the manchester school of economics that supply and demand will regulate everything for the best. just as economists were blind to the numerous cases in which the law of supply and demand left actual wants unsatisfied, so also many linguists are deaf to those instances in which the very nature of a language calls forth miSUNderstandings in everyday conversation, and in which, consequently, a word has to be modified or defined in order to present the idea intended by the speaker: “he took his stick-no, not john’s, but his own.” no language is perfect, and if we admit this truth, we must also admit that it is not unreasonable to investigate the relative merits of different languages or of different details in languages.
1)the primary purpose of the passage is to _________.
a.refute a belief held by some linguists.
b.show that economic theory is relevant to linguistic study.
c.illustrate the confusion that can result from the improper use of language.
d.suggest a way in which languages can be made more nearly perfect.
2)the misunderstanding presented by the author in line 7 is similar to which of the following?
i.x uses the word "you" to refer to a group, but y thinks that x is referring to one person only.
ii.x mistakenly uses the word "anomaly" to refer to a typical example, but y knows that "anomaly" means "exception."
iii.x uses the word "bachelor" to mean "unmarried man," but y mistakenly thinks that bachelor means "unmarried woman."
d.i and ii only
3)in presenting the argument, the author docs all of the following except _________.
a.giving an example.
b.drawing a conclusion.
c.making a comparison.
d.presenting a paradox.
4)which of the following contributes to the misunderstanding described by the author in line 7 ?
a.it is unclear whom the speaker of the sentence is addressing.
b.it is unclear to whom the word "his" refers the first time it is used.
c.it is unclear to whom the word "his" refers the second time it is used.
d.the meaning of "took" is ambiguous.
ii.correct errors in the following sentences: underline the wrong parts and put tbc correct ones in the brackets. (10%)
1.the first national park in world, yellowstone national park, was established in 1872.
2.minoru yamasaki is an american architect who works departed from the austerity frequent associated with architecture in the united states after the second world war.
3.the 1983 noble prize in medicine was awarded to barbara mcclintock for her experiment with maize and her discoveries regardless the nature of dna.
4.potential dehydration is the often greatest hazard that a land animal faces.
5.the culinary expert fannie farmer taught dietetics, kitchen management, and to cook at her famous boston school.
iii. english composition (40%)
as the saying goes, not the ignorance but the ignorance of ignorance is the death of knowledge. on fin basis of this idea you are required to write an essay of about 400 words about the relationship between ignorance and knowledge. in the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. in the final part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or summary.
marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. failure to follow the instruction will result in a loss of marks.
a.translate the following passage into chinese. write your translation on the answer sheet. (20%)
if darwinian theory works so well, why challenge it? there are several reasons to do so. although darwinian theory explains many of the facts of evolution better than any other theory, it does not necessarily explain the whole process. also, some of the results of evolution do not match what darwinian theory would predict. for example, if evolution leads to a perfect adaptation through natural selection acting on random hereditary changes, the process ought to slow down as it gets closer to the optimum for each species BECause fewer favorable changes can be made. we should also see a decrease in the number of species as they compete with one another and unsuccessful species are eliminated. but we see no such slowing down, and the number of species appears to be at least as great now as in the geologic past and perhaps even greater.
b.translate the following passage into english. write your translation on the answer sheet. (20%)
v.answer the following questions about british and american cultures. (30%)
1.how does the national health service function in britain?
2.in america, why is there not a decline in religious observance along with scientific and economic advance?
3.what is the general situation of the aged in the u.s.? what factors have contributed to this situation?如果觉得晒晒英语专业考研10大院校真题之中山大学不错，可以推荐给好友哦。