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考研英语强化班讲义之英译汉全真试题详解13(1)

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Unit 13

  Is it true that the American intellectual is rejected and considered of no account in his society? I am going to suggest that it is not true. Father Bruckbergen told part of the story when he observed that it is the intellectuals who have rejected Americans. But they have done more than that. They have grown dissatisfied with the role of intellectual. It is they, not Americans, who have become anti-intellectual.

  First, the object of our study pleads for definition. What is an intellectual? (46) I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems .He explores such problem consciously, articulately, and frankly, first by asking factual questions, then by asking moral questions, finally by suggesting action which seems appropriate in the light of the factual and moral information which he has obtained. (47) His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

  This definition excludes many individuals usually referred to as intellectuals --- the average scientist for one 48) I have excluded him because, while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, he has not been charged with the task of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems. Like other human beings, he encounters moral issues even in everyday performance of his routine duties.--- he is not supposed to cook his experiments, manufacture evidence, or doctor his reports. (49) But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business. During most of his walking life he will take his code for granted, as the businessman takes his ethics.

  The definition also excludes the majority of factors, despite the fact that teaching has traditionally been the method whereby many intellectuals earn their living (50) They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment .This description even fits the majority eminent scholars .“Being learned in some branch of human knowledge in one thing, living in public and industrious thoughts,” as Emerson would say ,“is something else.”

Unit13 翻译题解

  46. I shall define him as an individual who has elected as his primary duty and pleasure in life the activity of thinking in Socratic(苏格拉底) way about moral problems.

  〔参考译文〕我会把知识分子定义为这样的人:他把用苏格拉底方式思考道德问题作为人生的主要任务和乐趣。

  47.His function is analogous to that of a judge, who must accept the obligation of revealing in as obvious a matter as possible the course of reasoning which led him to his decision.

  〔参考译文〕知识分子的作用与法官相似,他必须接受一种义务,那就是在尽可能清楚的事情中揭示导致其做出决定的推理过程。

  48.I have excluded him /because, (while his accomplishments may contribute to the solution of moral problems, )he has not been charges with the task /of approaching any but the factual aspects of those problems.

  〔参考译文〕我之所以把普通科学家排除在外,是因为尽管他的成就可能有助于解决道德问题,但他还没承担起研究道德问题事实方面以外的任何责任。

  49. But his primary task is not to think about the moral code, which governs his activity, any more than a businessman is expected to dedicate his energies to an exploration of rules of conduct in business.

  〔参考译文〕但是,普通科学家的主要任务并非思考指导其行为的道德规范,正如我们并不指望商人把精力投入到商业行为的探索一样。

  50. They may teach very well and more than earn their salaries, but most of them make little or no independent reflections on human problems which involve moral judgment.

〔参考译文〕知识分子可能很会教书,而且不仅仅是挣工资,但是他们大部分人对涉及道德判断的人类问题很少或者根本不进行独立思考。

 

 

第四部分  考研翻译评分标准、英语试卷评分执行细则

一、英译汉

评分标准说明

1.如果句子译文扭曲原文意思,该句得分最多不得超过 0.5 分。

2.如果某考生给出两种或两种以上的译法,若均正确,给分;若其中一种译法错误,不给分。

3.汉语错别字,不个别扣分,按整篇累计扣分。在不影响意思的前提下,满三个错别字扣0.5 分。

示例:

2001年英译汉评分标准

各句的分数段划分及实例如下:

71.There will be television chat shows hosted by robots, /

                      (1)1分

and cars with pollution monitors that will disable them /when they offend

                   (2)1分                      (3)1分

    答案:届时,将出现由机器人主持的电视谈话节目以及装有污染监控器的汽车,一旦这些汽车排污超标(违规),监控器就会使其停驶。

可接受译法

不可接受译法

(1)There will be … robots 将会有机器人主持的

     谈话/聊天/讨论/表演;

将有被机器人安装的电视聊天节目;

(hosted 错译扣1分)

(2)and cars …them

和有污染监控器装置的汽车,这些装置致使汽车失灵/无法运行/瘫痪/不能前进/不能开动/将阻止汽车开动

关系代词如指汽车,则扣1分;

disable 错译扣0.5分;

them(指汽车)指代关系错译,如译成监控器,扣1分,

但本部分扣分最多不得超过1分。

(3)when they offend

当汽车污染超量时。

当有污染监控器的汽车冒犯时。

(本段中offend错译扣1分)

整句示例

例1.    将有由机器人主持的电视闲谈节目和装有污染监控器的汽车。当汽车违反污染控制时;污染控制器将使汽车无法运转。(3分)

例2.    将会有机器人主持的电视聊天节目产生,并且有带有污染监控器的汽车。在汽车违反规章时就会不能前进。(2分)

例3.    将会出现被机器人控制的电视聊天节目,以及带有污染监控器的汽车在破坏环境时,使司机不能工作。(1分)

 

72.Children will play with dolls equipped with personality chips,

                       (1)1分

    computers with in-built personalities will be regarded as workmates rather than tools,

                            (2)1分

    relaxation will be in front of smell-television, and digital age will have arrived.

                             (3)1分

    答案:儿童将与装有个性芯片的玩具娃娃玩耍,具有个性内置的计算机将被视为工作伙伴而不是工具,人们将在气味电视机前休闲,届时数字化时代就来到了。

可接受译法

不可接受译法

(1)Children will play ... chips

     孩子们将与装有个性集成电路块的玩具娃娃玩;

     孩子们将会玩装有集成电路块的有个人性格的玩偶;

     personality为:“性格、个性”;

孩子们将要玩具有性格集成块的玩具;

dolls译成“玩具”扣0.5分;

chips译成“锌片”扣0.5分;

personality译为“个人”扣0.5分

(2)computers ... tools

     带有内装个性的计算机将被认为是同事而不是工具;

     内部装有人格化芯片的电脑将不会被看作工具而是被看作工作同伴;

具有性格的计算机将被看作是同事而不是工具;

(in-built错译或漏译扣0.5分);

(3)relaxation will be ... arrived

     (relaxation译为“放松、休息、消遣、娱乐”均为可接受译法。)

休息时前面的计算机就会发出气味(扣1分);

(本段译文基本意思正确,个别词错译或漏译均扣0.5分。)

整句示例:

    例1.孩子们将会与装有个生化集成电路片的玩偶玩耍,内装个性的电脑将被认为是工作同伴而不是工具,消遣将会在释放气味的电视机前进行,那就是说数字化时代就已到来。(3分)

    例2.孩子们将用装有人的性格的玩具玩,内装性格的计算机将被看作是同伴而不是工具,娱乐将出现在有气味的电视机前面,数字化时代将已到来。(2分)

例3.孩子们能够与安装了人工智能的玩具玩,电脑一旦安装了个性程序,它将视为伙伴而不是工具,看有香味的电视的时代即将到来。(1分)

73.Pearson has pieced together the work of hundreds of researchers around the world,

                            (1)1分

    to produce a unique millenium technology calender that gives the lastest dates,

                            (2)1分

    when we can expect hundreds of key breakthroughs and discoveries to take place.

                            (3)1分

    答案:皮尔森汇集世界各地数百位研究人员的成果,编制了一个独特的新技术年历,它列出了人们有望看到数百项重大突破和发现的最迟日期。

可接受译法

不可接受译法

(1)pieced together:汇集;收集;综合;拼集在一起

   around the world:世界各地,全世界;来自全世界

召集/让…在一起(工作)

拼凑;记载;整理;统计;组装;(扣0.5分)

周围世界;关于世界的;有关该领域的(扣0.5分)

(2)unique:独特的;独一无二的;唯一的

     millennium technology calendar;技术千年历;千年技术日历

     latest dates:最近/迟日期

统一的;天才的(扣0.5分)

技术方案;科技日记/记录(扣0.5分)

入门技术计划;微型技术日历(扣0.5分)

最新时代特征;新的数据/材料;最新时期/信息(扣0.5分)

(3)when: key breakthroughs:

     重大突破;关键性突破

当…时(扣1分)

关键破解/难题(扣0.5分)

整句示例:

    例1.未来学家皮尔森已将世界上数以百计的研究者的工作成果拼合起来,制成了独一无二的千年技术日历,它将给我们所能期望得到的几百个重要发现和突破发生的最近的日期。(3分)

    例2.皮尔森已将世界上成百科研者的工作综合起来,制成了一个独一无二的千年技术年历,给了我们一个最近日期,当我们能希望数百关键发现和突破不断出现。(2分)

例3.皮尔森把世界各地成百上千科研者的工作总集起来,产生一项技术,即当我们能希望找到百把钥匙并有所发现时,它能给出最新的数据。(1分)

 

74.But that, Pearson points out, is only the start of man-machine integration

                          (1)1分

    It will be the beginning of the long process of integration

                        (2)1分

    that will ultimately lead to a fully electronic human before the end of the next century."

                                  (3)1分

    答案:皮尔森指出,这个突破仅仅是人机一体化的开始:“它是人机一体化漫长之路的第一步,最终会使人们在下世纪末之前就研制出完全电子化的仿真人。”

可接受译法

不可接受译法

(1)But that is ...

     That所指代的内容不译出扣0.5分

     ... integration

     是人机综合的起点;

     是人机集成的开端;

     是人和机器结合的开始;

     是人和机器结为一体的开端;

     是人机集成技术的一个开端

人造机器集成的开端;

这仅仅是人造机器人集成工艺的开始;

如果人造机器的研究开始;

那仅仅是人造机械一体化的开始;

这仅仅是人化机器整体的一个开端;

这仅仅是人机交流的开始;

这预测仅仅只是人类机器时代升级的开始;

这仅是人工机械系统的开始;

(2)It will ... of integration

     它将成为长期的综合过程的开始;

     它将成为漫长的集成历程的开始;

     这是一体化漫长过程的开端;

     它将成为整体化长久过程的开端;

这将是交流的长期过程的起始

(3)that will ... next century

     这项技术将…人机结合在下世纪末之前必将最终导致完全的电子人;

     这种结合将在下个世纪结束前最终引起完全电子人的出现。

…将引导我们…实现全电子人类;

…将在下个世纪之前;

…并将导致完全电子人类直到下个世纪末;

…“电子人”最终出现的时间可能是到下世纪末;

将会产生电子人类;

整句示例:

    例1.但是,皮尔森指出这种进步仅仅是人和机器结合的开始:“人与机器的结合将是一个很长的进程,这只是一个开端,人机结合在下世纪末之前必要将最终导致完全电子人的出现。(3分)

    例2.但是,皮尔森指出,那仅仅是人机综合的起点:“它将成为长期的综合过程的开始,这个过程最终将引导我们在下个世纪末之前实现完全电子人类。(2分)

例3.但是,人们也指出,如果人造机器的研究开始:“它将成为一个长时间研究的开始并将导致完全电子人类直到下世纪末。(1分)

 

75. And home appliances will also become so smart

                  (1) 1 分

   that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout

                  (2) 1分

   of a new psychological disorderkitchen rage

                  (3)1分

    答案:家用电器将会变得如此智能化,以至于控制和操作它们会引发一种新的心理疾病——厨房狂躁。

可接受译法

不可接受译法

(1)home appliances:

     家庭电器;

     家用电器;

家具、家庭设施;

家用机器人;

(注:没有翻出“电器”,扣0.5分。)

(2)smart:

     聪明、有智慧;

精巧、精细、精致;

轻巧、轻松;

便捷、漂亮、方便、迷人;

敏锐、突出、简单轻松;

精密;(注:smart错译扣0.5分。)

(3)breakout:

     爆发,出现;

     发作,发生;

泛滥,突破,打破,开始;

问世,破坏,发泄;

变革;(注:breakout错译扣0.5分。)

(4)psychological disorder:

     心理混乱,

     心理不正常,心理失调;

     心理紊乱,心理错乱;

心理失衡;

心理不平衡;

心理扭曲;

(注:psychological disorder错译扣0.5分。)

(5)kitchen rage:

     厨房愤怒、厨房盛怒;

     厨房烦躁、厨房狂躁症;

     厨房生气、厨房火气;

     厨房怒气;

厨房抑郁症、厨房危机

厨房生气了、厨房紊乱;

厨房革命、厨房范围;

厨房心态;

(注:kitchen rage错译扣0.5分。)

整句示例:

    例1.家用电器也将变得如此有智慧,以至于操作和控制它们将导致一种新的心理混乱的爆发——厨房愤怒。(3分)

    例2.而且家庭用具也将变得这样灵敏,以至于控制和操作它们就会导致一种新的心理失衡的爆发——即所谓的厨房火气。(2分)

    例3.家庭供应也将变得如此精细,以致控制和操作它们将会导制新心理不正常的泛滥——厨房。(1分)

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